Chapter 5 - Analyzing Data and Communications Requirements
Immediate Data vs. Stored Data
- processed as it enters the computer system
- accumulated prior to the task that employs it
Limits to Retrieving Stored Data
has data been captured and stored? [ex. salesperson doesn't record non-sales]
is data available? [correlation data may be on different media]
- is data excessive? [requires
Classifying Stored Data
- "raw data"
reports and analyzes
- [ex. database dictionary]
Requirements for Collections of Data
Collections of Data as Files or Databases
- collection of data
- collection of integrated files
- collection of files
Need for Individual System Data Storage
provide data not stored by the organization, but needed for additional processing and analysis or for inquiries
to accumulate data for periodic processing
to hold processing results as intermediate output to await future events and decisions
to store data to reduce access delays or difficulties
to retain data that is potentially useful
to store data temporarily until a task is completed
Need for Stored Data for Collaborative Work
to store data related to the work and work product of the project
to store data related to project scheduling, coordination, and management
to store reports and other products being worked on
to store reasoning and results from collaborative planning and decision-making meetings
Sources of Data for Individual or Collaborative Information Processing
sources of stored data for individual information processing
Created by personal processing
Re-entered from reports and documents
From business partners (customers or suppliers)
installed on individual systems
accessed by communications
Networks such as the Internet
Data Created During Personal Processing
Data Retrieved from Internal Files and Databases
External Files and Databases
How Communications Are Used in Knowledge Work Tasks
Electronic Communications Volume
Two Methods for Determining Data and Communications Requirements
Document data currently used and communications currently employed
Employ a discovery method to elicit a correct and complete set of data and communications requirements
A Discovery Method for Data And Communications Requirements
Using Questions to Elicit Requirements
Three Characteristics of Tasks as Sources of Requirements
Tasks as part of organizational management processes
Tasks as part of organizational processes
Tasks associated with products and services provided by the organization
Steps in Data and Communications Requirements Determination
Analyze each of your tasks in terms of the three task characteristics
Is the task associated with support of management processes?
Is the task part of a business process?
Does the task involve goods and services?
Relate questions to each applicable source of requirements for each of your knowledge work tasks
How important is the data?
Are the data items available now?
Identify new data items for support of work.
Analyze requirements not met with current or planned data or communication.
Record data or communication currently available or planned for implementation on a data and communications requirement worksheet.
Requirements Associated with Management Processes
What problems do you deal with? What information do you need to solve each problem you identify?
What decisions do you make? What information do you need to make each decision?
What are your
critical success factors
? What information do you need to monitor your critical success factors?
What are the ends for your processes and activities? What information do you need to measure and monitor your "ends" or effectiveness?
What resources do you employ in your processes and activities? What information do you need to measure your efficiency in use of resources?
Requirements Associated with Organizational (Business) Processes
What data do you receive from others? How could it be supplied with less delay? What data could you store on your system in order to reduce information delays?
What problems do you have in information processing for the process? What data and communications facilities would assist you?
What part of the process could be performed in parallel? What data and communications would you need inorder to do your work in parallel with others?
What errors occur frequently in the input or process? What improvements in data or communcations would reduce errors?
What parts of the process could be combined for greater efficiency and reduction in cycle time?
Requirements Associated with Products and Services
What information is associated with or contained within the product or service? What additional information would be valuable to customers or suppliers?
What are the most common questions or inquiries from customers or clients? How could this information be provided more easily?
What uncertainties are faced by clients or customers relative to the selection, purchase, or use of the product or service? What information could you provide that would reduce their uncertainties?
What information would allow you to improve the product or service you provide?
Extending the Discovery Method to Collaborative Work Data Requirements
Creating a Data and Communications Requirements Worksheet
Items on the Data and Communications Requirements Worksheet
Knowledge worker data and communications requirements worksheet
Identification for Source of File/Database
Location of File/Database
Use of Communication Network in Task
(high or low)
Summary of Data Sources
Noncomputer sources of data
Organizational databases and files
Department or workgroup databases and files
Your own databases and files
Data and Communications Requirements for a Director of Software Sales
[ see Fig. 5-6 (pg. 161)]